131            Grizzly Bear

                        URSUS FEROX.--LEWIS and CLARK.
                                 [Ursus arctos]

                                 GRIZZLY BEAR.

                              PLATE CXXXI.--MALES.

     M. Magnitudine U. Americanum longe superans, plantis et unguibus
longioribus, auriculis brevioribus quam in isto; pilis saturate fuscis, apice


     Larger than the American Black Bear; soles of feet, and claws, longer, and
ears shorter than in the Black Bear.  Colour of the hair, dark brown, with paler


     GRIZZLY BEAR.  Umfreville, Hudson's Bay, p. 168. Ann. 1790.
     GRISLY BEAR.  Mackenzie's Voyage, p. 160. Ann. 1801.
     WHITE, or BROWN-GREY BEAR.  Gass' Journal of Lewis and Clark's Expedition,
       pp. 45, 116, 346. Ann. 1808.
       Expedition, vol. i. pp. 284, 293, 343, 375; vol. iii. pp. 25, 268.
       Ann. 1814.
     URSUS FEROX.  De Witt Clinton, Trans. Philos. and Lit. Society New York,
       vol. 1, p. 56. Ann. 1815.
     GRIZZLY BEAR.  Warden's United States, vol. i. p. 197. Ann. 1819.
     GREY BEAR.  Harmon's Journal, p. 417. Ann. 1820.
     URSUS CINEREUS.  Desm. Mamm. No. 253. Ann. 1820.
     URSUS HORRIBILIS.  Ord, Guthrie's Geography, vol. ii. p. 299.
     URSUS HORRIBILIS.  Say, Long's Expedition, vol. ii. p. 244, note 34.
       Ann. 1822.
     URSUS CANDESCENS.  Hamilton Smith, Griffith. An. Kingdom, vol. ii. p. 299;
       vol. v. No. 320. Ann. 1826.
     URSUS CINEREUS.  Harlan, Fauna, p. 48.
     GRIZZLY BEAR.  Godman's Nat. Hist., vol. i. p. 131.
     URSUS FEROX.  Rich., Fauna Boreali Americana, p. 24, Plate 1.


     The Grizzly Bear in form resembles the Norwegian variety of Ursus Arctos,
the Brown Bear of Europe; the facial line is rectilinear or slightly arched;
head, short and round; nose, bare; ears, rather small, and more hairy than those
of the Black Bear; legs, stout; body, large, but less fat and heavy in
proportion, than that of the Black Bear.
     Tail, short; paws and nails, very long, the latter extending from three to
five inches beyond the hair on the toes; they are compressed and channelled.
Hair, long and abundant, particularly about the head and neck, the longest hairs
being in summer about three inches, and in winter five or six inches long.  The
jaws are strong, and the teeth very large.
     The fore feet somewhat resemble the human hand, and are soft to the touch;
they have larger claws than the hind feet.  The animal treads on the whole palm
and entire heel.


     The Grizzly Bear varies greatly in colour, so much so, indeed, that it is
difficult to find two specimens alike:  the young are in general blacker than
the old ones.  The hair however is commonly dark brown at the roots and for
about three fourths of its length, then gradually fades into reddish-brown, and
is broadly tipped with white intermixed with irregular patches of black or
dull-brown, thus presenting a hoary or grizzly appearance on the surface, from
which the vulgar specific name is derived.
     A specimen procured by us presents the following colouring:  Nose, to near
the eyes, light brown; legs, forehead, and ears, black.  An irregularly mixed
dark grayish-brown prevails on the body, except on the neck, shoulders, upper
portion of fore-legs, and sides adjoining the shoulders, which parts are barred
or marked with light yellowish-gray, and the hairs in places tipped with
yellowish or dingy white.  Iris, dark brown.

     Male, killed by J. J. AUDUBON and party on the Missouri river, in
       1843--not full grown.
                                                      Feet.    Inches.

       From point of nose to root of tail,  .  .  .  .  5         6
       Tail (vertebrae),  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  0         3
       Tail (including hair),.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  0         4
       From point of nose to ear,  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  1         4
       Width of ear,.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  0         3 1/2
       Length of eye,  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  0         1
       Height at shoulder,.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  8         5
       Height at rump, .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  4         7
       Length of palm of fore foot,.  .  .  .  .  .  .  0         8
       Breadth of palm of fore foot,  .  .  .  .  .  .  0         6
       Length of sole of hind foot,.  .  .  .  .  .  .  0         9 1/2
       Breadth of sole of hind foot,  .  .  .  .  .  .  0         5 1/2
       Girth around the body, behind the shoulders,  .  4         1
       Width between the ears on the skull, .  .  .  .  0         7 1/2


     We have passed many hours of excitement, and some, perchance, of danger, in
the wilder portions of our country; and at times memory recals adventures we can
now hardly attempt to describe; nor can we ever again feel the enthusiasm such
scenes produced in us.  Our readers must therefore imagine, the startling
sensations experienced on a sudden and quite unexpected face-to-face meeting
with the savage Grizzly Bear--the huge shaggy monster disputing possession of
the wilderness against all comers, and threatening immediate attack!
     Whilst in a neighbourhood where the Grizzly Bear may possibly be hidden,
the excited nerves will cause the heart's pulsations to quicken if but a
startled ground-squirrel run past; the sharp click of the lock is heard, and the
rifle hastily thrown to the shoulder, before a second of time has assured the
hunter of the trifling cause of his emotion.
     But although dreaded alike by white hunter and by red man, this animal is
fortunately not very abundant to the eastward of the Rocky Mountains, and the
chance of encountering him does not often occur.  We saw only a few of these
formidable beasts during our expedition up the Missouri river and in the country
over which we hunted during our last journey to the west.
     The Indians, as is well known, consider the slaughter of a Grizzly Bear a
feat second only to scalping an enemy, and necklaces made of the claws of this
beast are worn as trophies by even the bravest among them.
     On the 22d of August, 1843, we killed one of these Bears, and as our
journals are before us, and thinking it may be of interest, we will extract the
account of the day's proceedings, although part of it has no connection with our
present subject.  We were descending the Upper Missouri river.
     "The weather being fine we left our camp of the previous night early, but
had made only about twelve miles when the wind arose and prevented our men from
making any headway with the oars; we therefore landed under a high bank amongst
a number of fallen trees and some drifted timber.  All hands went in search of
elks.  Mr. CULBERTSON killed a deer, and with the help of Mr. SQUIRES brought
the meat to the boat.  We saw nothing during a long walk we took, but hearing
three or four gunshots which we thought were fired by some of our party, we
hastened in the direction from whence the reports came, running and hallooing,
but could find no one.  We then made the best of our way back to the boat and
despatched three men, who discovered that the firing had been at an elk, which
was however not obtained.  Mr. BELL killed a female elk and brought a portion of
its flesh to the boat.  After resting ourselves a while and eating dinner, Mr.
CULBERTSON, SQUIRES, and ourselves walked to the banks of the Little Missouri,
distant about one mile, where we saw a buffalo bull drinking at the edge of a
sand-bar.  We shot him, and fording the stream, which was quite shallow, took
away the 'nerf;' the animal was quite dead.  We saw many ducks in this river.
In the course of the afternoon we started in our boat, and rowed about half a
mile below the Little Missouri.  Mr. CULBERTSON and ourselves walked to the body
of the bull again and knocked off his horns, after which Mr. CULBERTSON
endeavoured to penetrate a large thicket in hopes of starting a Grizzly Bear,
but found it so entangled with briars and vines that he was obliged to desist,
and returned very soon.  Mr. HARRIS, who had gone in the same direction and for
the same purpose, did not return with him.  As we were approaching the boat we
met Mr. SPRAGUE, who informed us that he thought he had seen a Grizzly Bear
walking along the upper bank of the river, and we went towards the spot as fast
as possible.  Meantime the Bear had gone down to the water, and was clumsily and
slowly proceeding on its way.  It was only a few paces from and below us, and
was seen by our whole party at the same instant.  We all fired, and the animal
dropped dead without even the power of uttering a groan.  Mr. CULBERTSON put a
rifle ball through its neck, BELL placed two large balls in its side, and our
bullet entered its belly.  After shooting the Bear we proceeded to a village of
'prairie dogs' (Spermophilus Ludovicianus), and set traps in hopes of catching
some of them.  We were inclined to think they had all left, but Mr. BELL seeing
two, shot them.  There were thousands of their burrows in sight.  Our 'patroon,'
assisted by one of the men, skinned the Bear, which weighed, as we thought,
about four hundred pounds.  It appeared to be between four and five years old,
and was a male.  Its lard was rendered, and filled sundry bottles with 'real
Bear's grease,' whilst we had the skin preserved by our accomplished
taxidermist, Mr. BELL."
     The following afternoon, as we were descending the stream, we saw another
Grizzly Bear, somewhat smaller than the one mentioned above.  It was swimming
towards the carcase of a dead buffalo lodged in the prongs of a "sawyer" or
"snag," but on seeing us it raised on its hind feet until quite erect, uttered a
loud grunt or snort, made a leap from the water, gained the upper bank of the
river, and disappeared in an instant amid the tangled briars and bushes
thereabouts.  Many wolves of different colours--black, white, red, or
brindle--were also intent on going to the buffalo to gorge themselves on the
carrion, but took fright at our approach, and we saw them sneaking away with
their tails pretty close to their hind-legs."
     The Grizzly Bear generally inhabits the swampy, well covered portions of
the districts where it is found, keeping a good deal among the trees and bushes,
and in these retreats it has its "beds" or lairs.  Some of these we passed by,
and our sensations were the reverse of pleasant whilst in such thick, tangled,
and dangerous neighbourhoods; the Bear in his concealment having decidedly the
advantage in case one should come upon him unawares.  These animals ramble
abroad both by day and night.  In many places we found their great tracks along
the banks of the rivers where they had been prowling in search of food.  There
are seasons during the latter part of summer, when the wild fruits that are
eagerly sought after by the Bears are very abundant.  These beasts then feed
upon them, tearing down the branches as far as they can reach whilst standing in
an upright posture.  They in this manner get at wild plums, service berries,
buffalo berries, and the seeds of a species of cornus or dog-wood which grows in
the alluvial bottoms of the northwest.  The Grizzly Bear is also in the habit of
scratching the gravelly earth on the sides of hills where the vegetable called
"pomme blanche" is known to grow, but the favourite food of these animals is the
more savoury flesh of such beasts as are less powerful, fleet, or cunning than
themselves.  They have been known to seize a wounded buffalo, kill it, and
partially bury it in the earth for future use, after having gorged themselves on
the best parts of its flesh and lapped up the warm blood.
     We have heard many adventures related, which occurred to hunters either
when surprised by these Bears, or when approaching them with the intention of
shooting them.  A few of these accounts, which we believe are true, we will
introduce:  During a voyage (on board one of the steamers belonging to the
American Fur Company) up the Missouri river, a large she-Bear with two young was
observed from the deck, and several gentlemen proposed to go ashore, kill the
dam, and secure her cubs.  A small boat was lowered for their accommodation, and
with guns and ammunition they pushed off to the bank and landed in the mud.  The
old Bear had observed them and removed her position to some distance, where she
stood near the bank, which was there several feet above the bed of the river.
One of the hunters having neared the animal, fired at her, inflicting a severe
wound.  Enraged with pain the Bear rushed with open jaws towards the sportsmen
at a rapid rate, and with looks that assured them she was in a desperate fury.
There was but a moment's time; the, party, too much frightened to stand the
charge, "ingloriously turned and fled," without even pulling another trigger,
and darting to the margin of the river jumped into the stream, losing their
guns, and floundering and bobbing under, while their hats floated away with the
muddy current.  After swimming a while they were picked up by the steamer, as
terrified as if the Bear was even then among them, though the animal on seeing
them all afloat had made off, followed by her young.
     The following was related to us by one of the "engages" at Fort Union:  A
fellow having killed an Indian woman, was forced to run away, and fearing he
would be captured, started so suddenly that be took neither gun nor other weapon
with him; he made his way to the Crow Indians, some three hundred miles up the
Yellow Stone river, where he arrived in a miserable plight, having suffered from
hunger and exposure.  He escaped the men who were first sent after him, by
keeping in ravines and hiding closely; but others were despatched, who finally
caught him.  He said that one day he saw a dead buffalo lying near the river
bank, and going towards it to get some of the meat, to his utter astonishment
and horror a young Grizzly Bear which was feeding on the carcass, raised up from
behind it and so suddenly attacked him that his face and hands were lacerated by
its claws before he had time to think of defending himself.  Not daunted,
however, he gave the cub a tremendous jerk, which threw it down, and took to his
heels, leaving the young savage in possession of the prize.
     The audacity of these Bears in approaching the neighbourhood of Fort Union
at times was remarkable.  The waiter, "Jean Battiste," who had been in the
employ of the company for upwards of twenty years, told us that while one day
picking peas in the garden, as he advanced towards the end of one of the rows,
he saw a large Grizzly Bear gathering that excellent vegetable also.  At this
unexpected and startling discovery, he dropped his bucket, peas and all, and
fled at his fastest pace to the Fort.  Immediately the hunters turned out on
their best horses, and by riding in a circle, formed a line which enabled them
to approach the Bear on all sides.  They found the animal greedily feasting on
the peas, and shot him without his apparently caring for their approach.  We
need hardly say the bucket was empty.
     In GODMAN's Natural History there are several anecdotes connected with the
Grizzly Bear.  The first is as follows:  A Mr. JOHN DOUGHERTY, a very
experienced and respectable hunter belonging to Major LONG's expedition, relates
that once, while hunting with another person on one of the upper tributaries of
the Missouri, be heard the report of his companion's rifle, and when he looked
round, beheld him at a short distance endeavouring to escape from one of these
beasts, which he had wounded as it was coming towards him.  DOUGHERTY, forgetful
of every thing but the preservation of his friend, hastened to call off the
attention of the Bear, and arrived in rifle-shot distance just in time to effect
his generous purpose.  He discharged his ball at the animal, and was obliged in
his turn to fly; his friend, relieved from immediate danger, prepared for
another attack by charging his rifle, with which he again wounded the Bear, and
saved Mr. DOUGHERTY from peril.  Neither received any injury from this
encounter, in which the Bear was at length killed.
     On another occasion, several hunters were chased by a Grizzly Bear, which
rapidly gained upon them.  A boy of the party, who could not run so fast as his
companions, perceiving the Bear very near him, fell with his face towards the
ground.  The animal reared up on his hind feet, stood for a moment, and then
bounded over him, impatient to catch the more distant fugitives.
     Mr. DOUGHERTY, the hunter before mentioned, relates the following instance
of the great muscular strength of the Grizzly Bear:  Having killed a bison, and
left the carcass for the purpose of procuring assistance to skin and cut it up,
he was very much surprised on his return to find that it had been dragged off
whole, to a considerable distance by a Grizzly Bear, and was then placed in a
pit which the animal had dug with his claws for its reception.
     The following is taken from Sir JOHN RICHARDSON's Fauna Boreali Americana:
"A party of voyagers, who had been employed all day in tracking a canoe up the
Saskatchewan, had seated themselves in the bright light by a fire, and were busy
in preparing their supper, when a large Grizzly Bear sprung over their canoe,
that was placed behind them, and seizing one of the party by the shoulder,
carried him off.  The rest fled in terror, with the exception of a Metis, named
BOURAPO, who, grasping his gun, followed the Bear as it was retreating leisurely
with its prey.  He called to his unfortunate comrade that he was afraid of
hitting him if he fired at the Bear, but the latter entreated him to fire
immediately, without hesitation, as the Bear was squeezing him to death.  On
this he took a deliberate aim and discharged the contents of his piece into the
body of the Bear, which instantly dropped its prey to pursue BOURAPO.  He
escaped with difficulty, and the Bear ultimately retired to a thicket, where it
was supposed to have died; but the curiosity of the party not being a match for
their fears, the fact of its decease was not ascertained.  The man who was
rescued had his arm fractured, and was otherwise severely bitten by the Bear,
but finally recovered.  I have seen BOURAPO, and can add that the account which
he gives is fully credited by the traders resident in that part of the country,
who are best qualified to judge of its truth from the knowledge of the parties.
I have been told that there is a man now living in the neighbourhood of
Edmonton-house who was attacked by a Grizzly Bear, which sprang out of a
thicket, and with one stroke of its paw completely scalped him, laying bare the
skull and bringing the skin of the forehead down over the eyes.  Assistance
coming up, the Bear made off without doing him further injury, but the scalp not
being replaced, the poor man has lost his sight, although he thinks that his
eyes are uninjured."
     Mr. DRUMMOND, in his excursions over the Rocky Mountains, had frequent
opportunities of observing the manners of the Grizzly Bear, and it often
happened that in turning the point of a rock or sharp angle of a valley, he came
suddenly upon one or more of them.  On such occasions they reared on their hind
legs and made a loud noise like a person breathing quick, but much harsher.  He
kept his ground without attempting to molest them, and they, on their part,
after attentively regarding him for some time, generally wheeled round and
galloped off, though, from their disposition, there is little doubt but he would
have been torn in pieces had he lost his presence of mind and attempted to fly.
When he discovered them from a distance, he generally frightened them away by
beating on a large tin box, in which he carried his specimens of plants.  He
never saw more than four together, and two of these he supposes to have been
cubs; he more often met them singly or in pairs.  He was only once attacked, and
then by a female, for the purpose of allowing her cubs time to escape.  His gun
on this occasion missed fire, but he kept her at bay with the stock of it, until
some gentlemen of the Hudson's Bay Company, with whom he was travelling at the
time, came up and drove her off.  In the latter end of June, 1826, he observed a
male caressing a female, and soon afterwards they both came towards him, but
whether accidentally, or for the purpose of attacking him, he was uncertain.  He
ascended a tree, and as the female drew near, fired at and mortally wounded her.
She uttered a few loud screams, which threw the male into a furious rage, and he
reared up against the trunk of the tree in which Mr. DRUMMOND was seated, but
never attempted to ascend it.  The female, in the meantime, retired to a short
distance, lay down, and as the male was proceeding to join her, Mr. DRUMMOND
shot him also.
     The young Grizzly Bears and gravid females hibernate, but the older males
often come abroad in the winter in quest of food.  MACKENZIE mentions the den or
winter retreat of a Grizzly Bear, which was ten feet wide, five feet high, and
six feet long.
     This species varies very much in colour; we have skins in our possession
collected on the Upper Missouri, some of which are nearly white, whilst others
are as nearly of a rufous tint.  The one that was killed by our party (of which
we have also the skin) was a dark brown one.
     The following is from notes of J. W. AUDUBON, made in California in 1849
and 1850:  "High up on the waters of the San Joaquin, in California, many of
these animals have been killed by the miners now overrunning all the country
west of the Sierra Nevada.  Greatly as the Grizzly Bear is dreaded, it is hunted
with all the more enthusiasm by these fearless pioneers in the romantic hills,
valleys, and wild mountains of the land of gold, as its flesh is highly prized
by men who have been living for months on salt pork or dry and tasteless
deer-meat.  I have seen two dollars a pound paid for the leaf-fat around the
kidneys.  If there is time, and the animal is not in a starving condition, the
Grizzly Bear always runs at the sight of man; but should the hunter come too
suddenly on him, the fierce beast always commences the engagement.--And the
first shot of the hunter is a matter of much importance, as, if unsuccessful,
his next move must be to look for a sapling to climb for safety.  It is rare to
find a man who would willingly come into immediate contact with one of these
powerful and vindictive brutes.  Some were killed near 'Green Springs,' on the
Stanislaus, in the winter of 1849-50, that were nearly eight hundred pounds
weight.  I saw many cubs at San Francisco, Sacramento city, and Stockton, and
even those not larger than an ordinary sized dog, showed evidence of their
future fierceness, as it required great patience to render them gentle enough to
be handled with impunity as pets.  In camping at night, my friend ROBERT LAYTON,
and I too, often thought what sort of defence we could make should an old fellow
come smelling round our solitary tent for supper; but as 'Old Riley,' our
pack-mule, was always tied near, we used to quiet ourselves with the idea that
while Riley was snorting and kicking, we might place a couple of well aimed
balls from our old friend Miss Betsey (as the boys had christened my large gun),
so that our revolvers, COLT's dragoon pistols, would give us the victory; but
really a startling effect would be produced by the snout of a Grizzly Bear being
thrust into your tent, and your awaking at the noise of the sniff he might take
to induce his appetite.
     "I was anxious to purchase a few of the beautiful skins of this species,
but those who had killed 'an old Grizzly,' said they would take his skin home.
It makes a first rate bed under the thin and worn blanket of the digger.
     The different colours of the pelage of this animal, but for the uniformity
of its extraordinary claws, would puzzle any one not acquainted with its form,
for it varies from jet black in the young of the first and second winter to the
hoary gray of age, or of summer."
     In TOWNSEND's "Narrative of a Journey across the Rocky Mountains to the
Columbia River, &c." (Philadelphia, 1839), we find two adventures with the
Grizzly Bear.  The first is as follows:  The party were on Black Foot river, a
small stagnant stream which runs in a northwesterly direction down a valley
covered with quagmires through which they had great difficulty in making their
way.  "As we approached our encampment, near a small grove of willows on the
margin of the river, a tremendous Grizzly Bear rushed out upon us.  Our horses
ran wildly in every direction, snorting with terror, and became nearly
unmanageable.  Several balls were instantly fired into him, but they only seemed
to increase his fury.  After spending a moment in rending each wound (their
invariable practice), he selected the person who happened to be nearest, and
darted after him, but before he proceeded far he was sure to be stopped again by
a ball from another quarter.  In this way he was driven about amongst us for
perhaps fifteen minutes, at times so near some of the horses that he received
several severe kicks from them.  One of the pack-horses was fastened upon by the
brute, and in the terrified animal's efforts to escape the dreaded gripe, the
pack and saddle were broken to pieces and disengaged.  One of our mules also
lent him a kick in the head, while pursuing it up an adjacent hill, which sent
him rolling to the bottom.  Here he was finally brought to a stand.  The poor
animal was so completely surrounded by enemies that he became bewildered.  He
raised himself upon his hind feet, standing almost erect, his mouth partly open,
and from his protruding tongue the blood fell fast in drops.  While in this
position he received about six more balls, each of which made him reel.  At
last, as in complete desperation, he dashed into the water, and swam several
yards with astonishing strength and agility, the guns cracking at him
constantly.  But he was not to proceed far.  Just then, RICHARDSON, who had been
absent, rode up, and fixing his deadly aim upon him, fired a ball into the back
of his head, which killed him instantly.  The strength of four men was required
to drag the ferocious brute from the water, and upon examining his body he was
found completely riddled; there did not appear to be four inches of his shaggy
person, from the hips upward, that had not received a ball.  There must have
been at least thirty shots made at him, and probably few missed him, yet such
was his tenacity of life that I have no doubt he would have succeeded in
crossing the river, but for the last shot in the brain.  He would probably
weigh, at the least, six hundred pounds, and was about the height of an ordinary
steer.  The spread of the foot, laterally, was ten inches, and the claws
measured seven inches in length.  This animal was remarkably lean; when in good
condition he would doubtless much exceed in weight the estimate I have given."
     At p. 68, TOWNSEND says:  "In the afternoon one of our men had a somewhat
perilous adventure with a Grizzly Bear.  He saw the animal crouching his huge
frame in some willows which skirted the river, and approaching him on horseback
to within twenty yards, fired upon him.  The Bear was only slightly wounded by
the shot, and with a fierce growl of angry malignity, rushed from his cover, and
gave chase.  The horse happened to be a slow one, and for the distance of half a
mile the race was hard contested, the Bear frequently approaching so near the
terrified animal as to snap at his heels, whilst the equally terrified rider,
who had lost his hat at the start, used whip and spur with the most frantic
diligence, frequently looking behind, from an influence which he could not
resist, at his rugged and determined foe, and shrieking in an agony of fear,
'shoot him!  shoot him!'  The man, who was one of the greenhorns, happened to be
about a mile behind the main body, either from the indolence of his horse or his
own carelessness; but as he approached the party in his desperate flight, and
his lugubrious cries reached the ears of the men in front, about a dozen of them
rode to his assistance, and soon succeeded in diverting the attention of his
pertinacious foe.  After he had received the contents of all the guns, he fell,
and was soon despatched.  The man rode in among his fellows, pale and haggard
from overwrought feelings, and was probably effectually cured of a propensity
for meddling with Grizzly Bears."

                           GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION.

     The Grizzly Bear has been found as far north as about latitude 61 degrees.
It is an inhabitant of the western and northwestern portions of North America,
is most frequently met with in hilly and woody districts, and (east of the Rocky
Mountains) along the edges of the Upper Missouri and Upper Mississippi rivers,
and their tributaries.  On the west coast it is found rather numerously in
California, generally keeping among the oaks and pines, on the acorns and cones
of which it feeds with avidity,
     The Grizzly Bear does not appear to have been seen in eastern Texas or the
southern parts of New Mexico, and as far as we have heard has not been
discovered in Lower California.

                                GENERAL REMARKS.

     To LEWIS and CLARK we are indebted for the first authentic account of the
difference between this species and the Black Bear of America, although the
Grizzly Bear was mentioned a long time previously by LA HONTAN and others.
     DE WITT CLINTON, in a discourse before the New York Literary and
Philosophical Society, was the next naturalist who clearly showed that this
animal was specifically distinct from either the Polar or the common Bear.
     LEWIS and CLARK's name, Grizzly, translated into Ferox, has been generally
adopted by naturalists to designate this species, and we have admitted it in our
nomenclature of this work.  We believe that the name proposed for it by ORD
(Ursus Horribilis), and which SAY adopted, must, if we adhere to the rules by
which naturalists should be guided in such matters, ultimately take the
     The difference between the Grizzly Bear and the Black may be easily
detected.  The soles of the feet of the former are longer, and the heel broader;
the claws are very long, whilst in the Black Bear they are quite short.  The
tail of the Grizzly Bear is shorter than that of the Black, and its body is
larger, less clumsy and unwieldy, and its head flatter than the head of the
     The Grizzly Bear makes enormous long tracks, and differs widely from the
Black Bear in its habits, being very ferocious, and fearlessly attacking man.
     We think the average size and weight of this animal are much underrated.
We have no hesitation in stating that the largest specimens would weigh
considerably over one thousand pounds.  We have seen a skin of the common Black
Bear, shot in the State of New York, the original owner of which was said to
have weighed twelve hundred and odd pounds when killed!