131 Grizzly Bear
URSUS FEROX.--LEWIS and CLARK. [Ursus arctos] GRIZZLY BEAR. [THREATENED] PLATE CXXXI.--MALES. M. Magnitudine U. Americanum longe superans, plantis et unguibus longioribus, auriculis brevioribus quam in isto; pilis saturate fuscis, apice griseis. CHARACTERS. Larger than the American Black Bear; soles of feet, and claws, longer, and ears shorter than in the Black Bear. Colour of the hair, dark brown, with paler tips. SYNONYMES. GRIZZLY BEAR. Umfreville, Hudson's Bay, p. 168. Ann. 1790. GRISLY BEAR. Mackenzie's Voyage, p. 160. Ann. 1801. WHITE, or BROWN-GREY BEAR. Gass' Journal of Lewis and Clark's Expedition, pp. 45, 116, 346. Ann. 1808. GRIZZLY, BROWN, WHITE, AND VARIEGATED BEAR--URSUS FEROX. Lewis and Clark, Expedition, vol. i. pp. 284, 293, 343, 375; vol. iii. pp. 25, 268. Ann. 1814. URSUS FEROX. De Witt Clinton, Trans. Philos. and Lit. Society New York, vol. 1, p. 56. Ann. 1815. GRIZZLY BEAR. Warden's United States, vol. i. p. 197. Ann. 1819. GREY BEAR. Harmon's Journal, p. 417. Ann. 1820. URSUS CINEREUS. Desm. Mamm. No. 253. Ann. 1820. URSUS HORRIBILIS. Ord, Guthrie's Geography, vol. ii. p. 299. URSUS HORRIBILIS. Say, Long's Expedition, vol. ii. p. 244, note 34. Ann. 1822. URSUS CANDESCENS. Hamilton Smith, Griffith. An. Kingdom, vol. ii. p. 299; vol. v. No. 320. Ann. 1826. URSUS CINEREUS. Harlan, Fauna, p. 48. GRIZZLY BEAR. Godman's Nat. Hist., vol. i. p. 131. URSUS FEROX. Rich., Fauna Boreali Americana, p. 24, Plate 1. DESCRIPTION. The Grizzly Bear in form resembles the Norwegian variety of Ursus Arctos, the Brown Bear of Europe; the facial line is rectilinear or slightly arched; head, short and round; nose, bare; ears, rather small, and more hairy than those of the Black Bear; legs, stout; body, large, but less fat and heavy in proportion, than that of the Black Bear. Tail, short; paws and nails, very long, the latter extending from three to five inches beyond the hair on the toes; they are compressed and channelled. Hair, long and abundant, particularly about the head and neck, the longest hairs being in summer about three inches, and in winter five or six inches long. The jaws are strong, and the teeth very large. The fore feet somewhat resemble the human hand, and are soft to the touch; they have larger claws than the hind feet. The animal treads on the whole palm and entire heel. COLOUR. The Grizzly Bear varies greatly in colour, so much so, indeed, that it is difficult to find two specimens alike: the young are in general blacker than the old ones. The hair however is commonly dark brown at the roots and for about three fourths of its length, then gradually fades into reddish-brown, and is broadly tipped with white intermixed with irregular patches of black or dull-brown, thus presenting a hoary or grizzly appearance on the surface, from which the vulgar specific name is derived. A specimen procured by us presents the following colouring: Nose, to near the eyes, light brown; legs, forehead, and ears, black. An irregularly mixed dark grayish-brown prevails on the body, except on the neck, shoulders, upper portion of fore-legs, and sides adjoining the shoulders, which parts are barred or marked with light yellowish-gray, and the hairs in places tipped with yellowish or dingy white. Iris, dark brown.
DIMENSIONS. Male, killed by J. J. AUDUBON and party on the Missouri river, in 1843--not full grown. Feet. Inches. From point of nose to root of tail, . . . . 5 6 Tail (vertebrae), . . . . . . . . . . 0 3 Tail (including hair),. . . . . . . . . 0 4 From point of nose to ear, . . . . . . . 1 4 Width of ear,. . . . . . . . . . . . 0 3 1/2 Length of eye, . . . . . . . . . . . 0 1 Height at shoulder,. . . . . . . . . . 8 5 Height at rump, . . . . . . . . . . . 4 7 Length of palm of fore foot,. . . . . . . 0 8 Breadth of palm of fore foot, . . . . . . 0 6 Length of sole of hind foot,. . . . . . . 0 9 1/2 Breadth of sole of hind foot, . . . . . . 0 5 1/2 Girth around the body, behind the shoulders, . 4 1 Width between the ears on the skull, . . . . 0 7 1/2 HABITS. We have passed many hours of excitement, and some, perchance, of danger, in the wilder portions of our country; and at times memory recals adventures we can now hardly attempt to describe; nor can we ever again feel the enthusiasm such scenes produced in us. Our readers must therefore imagine, the startling sensations experienced on a sudden and quite unexpected face-to-face meeting with the savage Grizzly Bear--the huge shaggy monster disputing possession of the wilderness against all comers, and threatening immediate attack! Whilst in a neighbourhood where the Grizzly Bear may possibly be hidden, the excited nerves will cause the heart's pulsations to quicken if but a startled ground-squirrel run past; the sharp click of the lock is heard, and the rifle hastily thrown to the shoulder, before a second of time has assured the hunter of the trifling cause of his emotion. But although dreaded alike by white hunter and by red man, this animal is fortunately not very abundant to the eastward of the Rocky Mountains, and the chance of encountering him does not often occur. We saw only a few of these formidable beasts during our expedition up the Missouri river and in the country over which we hunted during our last journey to the west. The Indians, as is well known, consider the slaughter of a Grizzly Bear a feat second only to scalping an enemy, and necklaces made of the claws of this beast are worn as trophies by even the bravest among them. On the 22d of August, 1843, we killed one of these Bears, and as our journals are before us, and thinking it may be of interest, we will extract the account of the day's proceedings, although part of it has no connection with our present subject. We were descending the Upper Missouri river. "The weather being fine we left our camp of the previous night early, but had made only about twelve miles when the wind arose and prevented our men from making any headway with the oars; we therefore landed under a high bank amongst a number of fallen trees and some drifted timber. All hands went in search of elks. Mr. CULBERTSON killed a deer, and with the help of Mr. SQUIRES brought the meat to the boat. We saw nothing during a long walk we took, but hearing three or four gunshots which we thought were fired by some of our party, we hastened in the direction from whence the reports came, running and hallooing, but could find no one. We then made the best of our way back to the boat and despatched three men, who discovered that the firing had been at an elk, which was however not obtained. Mr. BELL killed a female elk and brought a portion of its flesh to the boat. After resting ourselves a while and eating dinner, Mr. CULBERTSON, SQUIRES, and ourselves walked to the banks of the Little Missouri, distant about one mile, where we saw a buffalo bull drinking at the edge of a sand-bar. We shot him, and fording the stream, which was quite shallow, took away the 'nerf;' the animal was quite dead. We saw many ducks in this river. In the course of the afternoon we started in our boat, and rowed about half a mile below the Little Missouri. Mr. CULBERTSON and ourselves walked to the body of the bull again and knocked off his horns, after which Mr. CULBERTSON endeavoured to penetrate a large thicket in hopes of starting a Grizzly Bear, but found it so entangled with briars and vines that he was obliged to desist, and returned very soon. Mr. HARRIS, who had gone in the same direction and for the same purpose, did not return with him. As we were approaching the boat we met Mr. SPRAGUE, who informed us that he thought he had seen a Grizzly Bear walking along the upper bank of the river, and we went towards the spot as fast as possible. Meantime the Bear had gone down to the water, and was clumsily and slowly proceeding on its way. It was only a few paces from and below us, and was seen by our whole party at the same instant. We all fired, and the animal dropped dead without even the power of uttering a groan. Mr. CULBERTSON put a rifle ball through its neck, BELL placed two large balls in its side, and our bullet entered its belly. After shooting the Bear we proceeded to a village of 'prairie dogs' (Spermophilus Ludovicianus), and set traps in hopes of catching some of them. We were inclined to think they had all left, but Mr. BELL seeing two, shot them. There were thousands of their burrows in sight. Our 'patroon,' assisted by one of the men, skinned the Bear, which weighed, as we thought, about four hundred pounds. It appeared to be between four and five years old, and was a male. Its lard was rendered, and filled sundry bottles with 'real Bear's grease,' whilst we had the skin preserved by our accomplished taxidermist, Mr. BELL." The following afternoon, as we were descending the stream, we saw another Grizzly Bear, somewhat smaller than the one mentioned above. It was swimming towards the carcase of a dead buffalo lodged in the prongs of a "sawyer" or "snag," but on seeing us it raised on its hind feet until quite erect, uttered a loud grunt or snort, made a leap from the water, gained the upper bank of the river, and disappeared in an instant amid the tangled briars and bushes thereabouts. Many wolves of different colours--black, white, red, or brindle--were also intent on going to the buffalo to gorge themselves on the carrion, but took fright at our approach, and we saw them sneaking away with their tails pretty close to their hind-legs." The Grizzly Bear generally inhabits the swampy, well covered portions of the districts where it is found, keeping a good deal among the trees and bushes, and in these retreats it has its "beds" or lairs. Some of these we passed by, and our sensations were the reverse of pleasant whilst in such thick, tangled, and dangerous neighbourhoods; the Bear in his concealment having decidedly the advantage in case one should come upon him unawares. These animals ramble abroad both by day and night. In many places we found their great tracks along the banks of the rivers where they had been prowling in search of food. There are seasons during the latter part of summer, when the wild fruits that are eagerly sought after by the Bears are very abundant. These beasts then feed upon them, tearing down the branches as far as they can reach whilst standing in an upright posture. They in this manner get at wild plums, service berries, buffalo berries, and the seeds of a species of cornus or dog-wood which grows in the alluvial bottoms of the northwest. The Grizzly Bear is also in the habit of scratching the gravelly earth on the sides of hills where the vegetable called "pomme blanche" is known to grow, but the favourite food of these animals is the more savoury flesh of such beasts as are less powerful, fleet, or cunning than themselves. They have been known to seize a wounded buffalo, kill it, and partially bury it in the earth for future use, after having gorged themselves on the best parts of its flesh and lapped up the warm blood. We have heard many adventures related, which occurred to hunters either when surprised by these Bears, or when approaching them with the intention of shooting them. A few of these accounts, which we believe are true, we will introduce: During a voyage (on board one of the steamers belonging to the American Fur Company) up the Missouri river, a large she-Bear with two young was observed from the deck, and several gentlemen proposed to go ashore, kill the dam, and secure her cubs. A small boat was lowered for their accommodation, and with guns and ammunition they pushed off to the bank and landed in the mud. The old Bear had observed them and removed her position to some distance, where she stood near the bank, which was there several feet above the bed of the river. One of the hunters having neared the animal, fired at her, inflicting a severe wound. Enraged with pain the Bear rushed with open jaws towards the sportsmen at a rapid rate, and with looks that assured them she was in a desperate fury. There was but a moment's time; the, party, too much frightened to stand the charge, "ingloriously turned and fled," without even pulling another trigger, and darting to the margin of the river jumped into the stream, losing their guns, and floundering and bobbing under, while their hats floated away with the muddy current. After swimming a while they were picked up by the steamer, as terrified as if the Bear was even then among them, though the animal on seeing them all afloat had made off, followed by her young. The following was related to us by one of the "engages" at Fort Union: A fellow having killed an Indian woman, was forced to run away, and fearing he would be captured, started so suddenly that be took neither gun nor other weapon with him; he made his way to the Crow Indians, some three hundred miles up the Yellow Stone river, where he arrived in a miserable plight, having suffered from hunger and exposure. He escaped the men who were first sent after him, by keeping in ravines and hiding closely; but others were despatched, who finally caught him. He said that one day he saw a dead buffalo lying near the river bank, and going towards it to get some of the meat, to his utter astonishment and horror a young Grizzly Bear which was feeding on the carcass, raised up from behind it and so suddenly attacked him that his face and hands were lacerated by its claws before he had time to think of defending himself. Not daunted, however, he gave the cub a tremendous jerk, which threw it down, and took to his heels, leaving the young savage in possession of the prize. The audacity of these Bears in approaching the neighbourhood of Fort Union at times was remarkable. The waiter, "Jean Battiste," who had been in the employ of the company for upwards of twenty years, told us that while one day picking peas in the garden, as he advanced towards the end of one of the rows, he saw a large Grizzly Bear gathering that excellent vegetable also. At this unexpected and startling discovery, he dropped his bucket, peas and all, and fled at his fastest pace to the Fort. Immediately the hunters turned out on their best horses, and by riding in a circle, formed a line which enabled them to approach the Bear on all sides. They found the animal greedily feasting on the peas, and shot him without his apparently caring for their approach. We need hardly say the bucket was empty. In GODMAN's Natural History there are several anecdotes connected with the Grizzly Bear. The first is as follows: A Mr. JOHN DOUGHERTY, a very experienced and respectable hunter belonging to Major LONG's expedition, relates that once, while hunting with another person on one of the upper tributaries of the Missouri, be heard the report of his companion's rifle, and when he looked round, beheld him at a short distance endeavouring to escape from one of these beasts, which he had wounded as it was coming towards him. DOUGHERTY, forgetful of every thing but the preservation of his friend, hastened to call off the attention of the Bear, and arrived in rifle-shot distance just in time to effect his generous purpose. He discharged his ball at the animal, and was obliged in his turn to fly; his friend, relieved from immediate danger, prepared for another attack by charging his rifle, with which he again wounded the Bear, and saved Mr. DOUGHERTY from peril. Neither received any injury from this encounter, in which the Bear was at length killed. On another occasion, several hunters were chased by a Grizzly Bear, which rapidly gained upon them. A boy of the party, who could not run so fast as his companions, perceiving the Bear very near him, fell with his face towards the ground. The animal reared up on his hind feet, stood for a moment, and then bounded over him, impatient to catch the more distant fugitives. Mr. DOUGHERTY, the hunter before mentioned, relates the following instance of the great muscular strength of the Grizzly Bear: Having killed a bison, and left the carcass for the purpose of procuring assistance to skin and cut it up, he was very much surprised on his return to find that it had been dragged off whole, to a considerable distance by a Grizzly Bear, and was then placed in a pit which the animal had dug with his claws for its reception. The following is taken from Sir JOHN RICHARDSON's Fauna Boreali Americana: "A party of voyagers, who had been employed all day in tracking a canoe up the Saskatchewan, had seated themselves in the bright light by a fire, and were busy in preparing their supper, when a large Grizzly Bear sprung over their canoe, that was placed behind them, and seizing one of the party by the shoulder, carried him off. The rest fled in terror, with the exception of a Metis, named BOURAPO, who, grasping his gun, followed the Bear as it was retreating leisurely with its prey. He called to his unfortunate comrade that he was afraid of hitting him if he fired at the Bear, but the latter entreated him to fire immediately, without hesitation, as the Bear was squeezing him to death. On this he took a deliberate aim and discharged the contents of his piece into the body of the Bear, which instantly dropped its prey to pursue BOURAPO. He escaped with difficulty, and the Bear ultimately retired to a thicket, where it was supposed to have died; but the curiosity of the party not being a match for their fears, the fact of its decease was not ascertained. The man who was rescued had his arm fractured, and was otherwise severely bitten by the Bear, but finally recovered. I have seen BOURAPO, and can add that the account which he gives is fully credited by the traders resident in that part of the country, who are best qualified to judge of its truth from the knowledge of the parties. I have been told that there is a man now living in the neighbourhood of Edmonton-house who was attacked by a Grizzly Bear, which sprang out of a thicket, and with one stroke of its paw completely scalped him, laying bare the skull and bringing the skin of the forehead down over the eyes. Assistance coming up, the Bear made off without doing him further injury, but the scalp not being replaced, the poor man has lost his sight, although he thinks that his eyes are uninjured." Mr. DRUMMOND, in his excursions over the Rocky Mountains, had frequent opportunities of observing the manners of the Grizzly Bear, and it often happened that in turning the point of a rock or sharp angle of a valley, he came suddenly upon one or more of them. On such occasions they reared on their hind legs and made a loud noise like a person breathing quick, but much harsher. He kept his ground without attempting to molest them, and they, on their part, after attentively regarding him for some time, generally wheeled round and galloped off, though, from their disposition, there is little doubt but he would have been torn in pieces had he lost his presence of mind and attempted to fly. When he discovered them from a distance, he generally frightened them away by beating on a large tin box, in which he carried his specimens of plants. He never saw more than four together, and two of these he supposes to have been cubs; he more often met them singly or in pairs. He was only once attacked, and then by a female, for the purpose of allowing her cubs time to escape. His gun on this occasion missed fire, but he kept her at bay with the stock of it, until some gentlemen of the Hudson's Bay Company, with whom he was travelling at the time, came up and drove her off. In the latter end of June, 1826, he observed a male caressing a female, and soon afterwards they both came towards him, but whether accidentally, or for the purpose of attacking him, he was uncertain. He ascended a tree, and as the female drew near, fired at and mortally wounded her. She uttered a few loud screams, which threw the male into a furious rage, and he reared up against the trunk of the tree in which Mr. DRUMMOND was seated, but never attempted to ascend it. The female, in the meantime, retired to a short distance, lay down, and as the male was proceeding to join her, Mr. DRUMMOND shot him also. The young Grizzly Bears and gravid females hibernate, but the older males often come abroad in the winter in quest of food. MACKENZIE mentions the den or winter retreat of a Grizzly Bear, which was ten feet wide, five feet high, and six feet long. This species varies very much in colour; we have skins in our possession collected on the Upper Missouri, some of which are nearly white, whilst others are as nearly of a rufous tint. The one that was killed by our party (of which we have also the skin) was a dark brown one. The following is from notes of J. W. AUDUBON, made in California in 1849 and 1850: "High up on the waters of the San Joaquin, in California, many of these animals have been killed by the miners now overrunning all the country west of the Sierra Nevada. Greatly as the Grizzly Bear is dreaded, it is hunted with all the more enthusiasm by these fearless pioneers in the romantic hills, valleys, and wild mountains of the land of gold, as its flesh is highly prized by men who have been living for months on salt pork or dry and tasteless deer-meat. I have seen two dollars a pound paid for the leaf-fat around the kidneys. If there is time, and the animal is not in a starving condition, the Grizzly Bear always runs at the sight of man; but should the hunter come too suddenly on him, the fierce beast always commences the engagement.--And the first shot of the hunter is a matter of much importance, as, if unsuccessful, his next move must be to look for a sapling to climb for safety. It is rare to find a man who would willingly come into immediate contact with one of these powerful and vindictive brutes. Some were killed near 'Green Springs,' on the Stanislaus, in the winter of 1849-50, that were nearly eight hundred pounds weight. I saw many cubs at San Francisco, Sacramento city, and Stockton, and even those not larger than an ordinary sized dog, showed evidence of their future fierceness, as it required great patience to render them gentle enough to be handled with impunity as pets. In camping at night, my friend ROBERT LAYTON, and I too, often thought what sort of defence we could make should an old fellow come smelling round our solitary tent for supper; but as 'Old Riley,' our pack-mule, was always tied near, we used to quiet ourselves with the idea that while Riley was snorting and kicking, we might place a couple of well aimed balls from our old friend Miss Betsey (as the boys had christened my large gun), so that our revolvers, COLT's dragoon pistols, would give us the victory; but really a startling effect would be produced by the snout of a Grizzly Bear being thrust into your tent, and your awaking at the noise of the sniff he might take to induce his appetite. "I was anxious to purchase a few of the beautiful skins of this species, but those who had killed 'an old Grizzly,' said they would take his skin home. It makes a first rate bed under the thin and worn blanket of the digger. The different colours of the pelage of this animal, but for the uniformity of its extraordinary claws, would puzzle any one not acquainted with its form, for it varies from jet black in the young of the first and second winter to the hoary gray of age, or of summer." In TOWNSEND's "Narrative of a Journey across the Rocky Mountains to the Columbia River, &c." (Philadelphia, 1839), we find two adventures with the Grizzly Bear. The first is as follows: The party were on Black Foot river, a small stagnant stream which runs in a northwesterly direction down a valley covered with quagmires through which they had great difficulty in making their way. "As we approached our encampment, near a small grove of willows on the margin of the river, a tremendous Grizzly Bear rushed out upon us. Our horses ran wildly in every direction, snorting with terror, and became nearly unmanageable. Several balls were instantly fired into him, but they only seemed to increase his fury. After spending a moment in rending each wound (their invariable practice), he selected the person who happened to be nearest, and darted after him, but before he proceeded far he was sure to be stopped again by a ball from another quarter. In this way he was driven about amongst us for perhaps fifteen minutes, at times so near some of the horses that he received several severe kicks from them. One of the pack-horses was fastened upon by the brute, and in the terrified animal's efforts to escape the dreaded gripe, the pack and saddle were broken to pieces and disengaged. One of our mules also lent him a kick in the head, while pursuing it up an adjacent hill, which sent him rolling to the bottom. Here he was finally brought to a stand. The poor animal was so completely surrounded by enemies that he became bewildered. He raised himself upon his hind feet, standing almost erect, his mouth partly open, and from his protruding tongue the blood fell fast in drops. While in this position he received about six more balls, each of which made him reel. At last, as in complete desperation, he dashed into the water, and swam several yards with astonishing strength and agility, the guns cracking at him constantly. But he was not to proceed far. Just then, RICHARDSON, who had been absent, rode up, and fixing his deadly aim upon him, fired a ball into the back of his head, which killed him instantly. The strength of four men was required to drag the ferocious brute from the water, and upon examining his body he was found completely riddled; there did not appear to be four inches of his shaggy person, from the hips upward, that had not received a ball. There must have been at least thirty shots made at him, and probably few missed him, yet such was his tenacity of life that I have no doubt he would have succeeded in crossing the river, but for the last shot in the brain. He would probably weigh, at the least, six hundred pounds, and was about the height of an ordinary steer. The spread of the foot, laterally, was ten inches, and the claws measured seven inches in length. This animal was remarkably lean; when in good condition he would doubtless much exceed in weight the estimate I have given." At p. 68, TOWNSEND says: "In the afternoon one of our men had a somewhat perilous adventure with a Grizzly Bear. He saw the animal crouching his huge frame in some willows which skirted the river, and approaching him on horseback to within twenty yards, fired upon him. The Bear was only slightly wounded by the shot, and with a fierce growl of angry malignity, rushed from his cover, and gave chase. The horse happened to be a slow one, and for the distance of half a mile the race was hard contested, the Bear frequently approaching so near the terrified animal as to snap at his heels, whilst the equally terrified rider, who had lost his hat at the start, used whip and spur with the most frantic diligence, frequently looking behind, from an influence which he could not resist, at his rugged and determined foe, and shrieking in an agony of fear, 'shoot him! shoot him!' The man, who was one of the greenhorns, happened to be about a mile behind the main body, either from the indolence of his horse or his own carelessness; but as he approached the party in his desperate flight, and his lugubrious cries reached the ears of the men in front, about a dozen of them rode to his assistance, and soon succeeded in diverting the attention of his pertinacious foe. After he had received the contents of all the guns, he fell, and was soon despatched. The man rode in among his fellows, pale and haggard from overwrought feelings, and was probably effectually cured of a propensity for meddling with Grizzly Bears." GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION. The Grizzly Bear has been found as far north as about latitude 61 degrees. It is an inhabitant of the western and northwestern portions of North America, is most frequently met with in hilly and woody districts, and (east of the Rocky Mountains) along the edges of the Upper Missouri and Upper Mississippi rivers, and their tributaries. On the west coast it is found rather numerously in California, generally keeping among the oaks and pines, on the acorns and cones of which it feeds with avidity, The Grizzly Bear does not appear to have been seen in eastern Texas or the southern parts of New Mexico, and as far as we have heard has not been discovered in Lower California. GENERAL REMARKS. To LEWIS and CLARK we are indebted for the first authentic account of the difference between this species and the Black Bear of America, although the Grizzly Bear was mentioned a long time previously by LA HONTAN and others. DE WITT CLINTON, in a discourse before the New York Literary and Philosophical Society, was the next naturalist who clearly showed that this animal was specifically distinct from either the Polar or the common Bear. LEWIS and CLARK's name, Grizzly, translated into Ferox, has been generally adopted by naturalists to designate this species, and we have admitted it in our nomenclature of this work. We believe that the name proposed for it by ORD (Ursus Horribilis), and which SAY adopted, must, if we adhere to the rules by which naturalists should be guided in such matters, ultimately take the precedence. The difference between the Grizzly Bear and the Black may be easily detected. The soles of the feet of the former are longer, and the heel broader; the claws are very long, whilst in the Black Bear they are quite short. The tail of the Grizzly Bear is shorter than that of the Black, and its body is larger, less clumsy and unwieldy, and its head flatter than the head of the latter. The Grizzly Bear makes enormous long tracks, and differs widely from the Black Bear in its habits, being very ferocious, and fearlessly attacking man. We think the average size and weight of this animal are much underrated. We have no hesitation in stating that the largest specimens would weigh considerably over one thousand pounds. We have seen a skin of the common Black Bear, shot in the State of New York, the original owner of which was said to have weighed twelve hundred and odd pounds when killed!