92              Texan Lynx

               LYNX RUFUS--Var. MACULATUS.--Horsfield and Vigors.
                                 [Felis rufus]

                                  TEXAN LYNX.

                      PLATE XCII.--Female.--Winter pelage.

     L. rufo-grisea, dorso saturatiore, corporis lateribus memberisque externe
bruneo-maculatis, gula, corpore infra, membrisque interne albis, bruneo latius
maculati auribus pencillatis.

     Brownish-gray on the upper surface, sides of body and outer surface of
legs, with small brown spots; under surface of body and inner surface of legs,
white, broadly spotted with brown; ears, pencilled.


     FELIS MACULATUS.  Horsfield and Vigors.
     FELIS MACULATUS.  Zoological Journal, vol. 4, p. 380.
     FELIS MACULATUS.  Reichenbach, Regnum Animale, vol. 1, p. 6, pl. 37.


     In size, in shape, in its naked soles--in the form of the skull--the
disposition and character of its teeth, and in all its habits, this species is
so much like the Bay Lynx, (L. rufus,) that were it not for the different shades
of colour, and the peculiar markings of some parts of the body, no naturalist
would have ventured to describe it as a new species.  One of the characters
given to this supposed species by its original describers is that of pencilled
ears; this character, however, exists also in the Bay Lynx; in both cases these
hairs drop out when the other hairs are shed in spring, and are not replaced
till the following autumn.  The same peculiarity exists in many of our American
squirrels.  There is, as in L. rufus, a short ruff under the  throat of the
male.  The hair is of two kinds:  the inner, fine, and the outer and longer, not
very coarse, and the fur, although much shorter, is fully as fine as that of
specimens of the Bay Lynx obtained in Pennsylvania and New-York.


     The hairs on the back are at their roots yellowish-white, gradually
becoming light-yellow, which colour continues for three-fourths the length, when
they are barred with brownish-black, then yellowish-brown, tipped with black; on
the sides, the hairs are tipped with white; on the under surface, they are white
throughout, with a shade of pale-yellow at the base.  Where black spots exist on
the body, the hairs are less annulated--are dark-brown at the roots, deepening
into black; and in some spots on the sides, and the bands on the tail, the hairs
are pure black from the roots.
     Moustaches, white; around the nose, around the eye, and cheeks, pale fawn
colour; lips white; forehead, obscurely and irregularly marked with longitudinal
stripes of dark-brown on a light-yellowish ground-colour.  There are two black
lines commencing at a point on a line with the articulation of the lower jaw,
where they form an acute angle, diverging from thence to the rides of the neck,
and unite with the ruff, where it is an inch broad.  The ears are
yellowish-white on the inner surface, black on the outer, with a broad white
patch in the middle, including nearly their whole breadth.  The slight pencil of
hairs at the extremity of the ear is black; on the back the colours are waved,
and blended with obscure yellowish and brown spots-assuming on the dorsal line
slight indications of narrow longitudinal stripes.  The feet, on the upper
surface are dotted with small brown spots; on the under surface the ground
colour is whitish, with irregular patches of black.  This is more especially the
case on the inner surfaces of the thighs and fore legs, which present long
stripes and patches of black, somewhat irregularly disposed.  The tail is white
on the under surface, barred above with rufous and black; towards the extremity
there is first a bar of black about one-third of an inch wide, then
brownish-gray, then an inch of black; the white on the under surface rises above
the black, making the tip of the tail white.


                                   Male.--Weight 25 lb.   Female.--Weight 20 lb.
                                        Feet.  Inches.        Feet.  Inches.

     End of nose to eye,.  .  .  .  .  .        2      .  .  .        1 3/4
     End of nose to burr of ear, .  .  .        4 3/4  .  .  .        3 5/8
     Between ears,.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .        3 1/8  .  .  .        3
     Nose to crown of head,.  .  .  .  .        5 1/2  .  .  .        5 1/4
     Nose to root of tail, .  .  .  .  .  2     9      .  .  .  2     5
     Tail (vertebrae).  .  .  .  .  .  .        7      .  .  .        6
     Tail (vertebrae) to end of hair,  .        7 1/2  .  .  .        6 1/2
     Hind legs (stretched) beyond tail,.       11 1/2  .  .  .       10
     Fore legs (stretched) beyond nose,.        6 1/2  .  .  .        6
     Height of shoulder from ground,.  .  1     7 1/2  .  .  .  1     5 1/2
     Round body behind shoulder, .  .  .  1     4 1/2  .  .  .  1     2 1/2
     Round body at the loin,  .  .  .  .  1     4 1/2  .  .  .  1     0


     This variety of Lynx may be called the Common Wild-Cat of Texas, where it
is occasionally found even on the prairies, although it generally confines
itself to the neighbourhood of woods and chaparal.
     The Texan Wild-Cat is, like the Lynx rufus, a wily and audacious
depredator-- he steals the fowls from the newly-established rancho, or petty
farm; follows the hares, rats, and birds, and springs upon them in the tall rank
grass, or thick underbrush, and will sometimes even rob the ranger of a fine
turkey; for should the Wild-Cat be lurking in the dense thicket, when the crack
of the rifle is heard, and the wild gobbler or hen falls slanting to the earth,
he will, instead of flying with terror from the startling report of the gun,
dart towards the falling bird, seize it as it touches the ground, and bear it
off at full speed, even if in sight of the enraged and disappointed marksman who
brought down the prize.  In general, however, the Southern Lynx (as this species
is sometimes called) will fly from man's presence, and will only come abroad
during the day when very hard pressed by hunger, when it may be occasionally
seen near little thickets, on the edges of the prairies, or in the open ground,
prowling with the stealthy sneaking gait observed in the domestic cat, when
similarly employed.  This species of Wild-Cat is better able to escape from an
ordinary pack of dogs, than the Common Lynx, being accustomed to the great
distances across the high dry prairies, which it must frequently cross at full
speed.  We have known one chased, from 11 o'clock in the morning till dark
night, without being "treed."  The animal, in fact, prefers running, to
resorting to a tree at all times, and will not ascend one unless it be nearly
exhausted, and hard pressed by the hounds.

                           GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION.

     This variety of the Bay Lynx is believed to exist throughout Mexico; we
have seen specimens, obtained in that country, in several Museums of Europe,
especially those of Berlin and Dresden; in the latter, the specimen described
and figured by REICHENBACH is preserved.  His figure, however, which we have
compared with the original, is likely to mislead; the legs and tail being much
too long.  It exists in New Mexico, and we have heard that a Wild-Cat, supposed
to be the present variety, is found in California.  The specimen from which our
drawing was made, was procured with several orders by JOHN W. AUDUBON in the
vicinity of Castroville, on the head waters of the Medina, in Texas:  we possess
a specimen nearly of the same markings, procured by our deceased friend, the
late lamented Dr. WURDEMANN.

                                GENERAL REMARKS.

     We have admitted this as a variety of the Bay Lynx with some doubt and
hesitation, and not without misgivings that it might yet be proved to be a
distinct species.  The permanency of its colours, together with the smaller size
of our specimens, and their softer fur, may afford sufficient characters to
entitle it to the name of Maculatus, as given by HORSEFIELD and VIGOR.  Aware,
however, of the many varieties in the Bay Lynx, we have not felt authorised to
regard it as positively distinct.